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2012 USGS EAARL-B Coastal Topography: Post-Sandy, First Surface (NJ)
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      DateTime:  2022-03-29T00:00:00
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        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  2012 USGS EAARL-B Coastal Topography: Post-Sandy, First Surface (NJ)
            alternateTitle:  2012_usgs_post_sandy_nj_eaarlb_m3657_metadata
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  2014
                dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
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                  Anchor:  InPort Catalog ID 49611
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                        linkage: https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/49611
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                        linkage: http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/767/
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                        linkage: https://coast.noaa.gov
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                        linkage: https://coast.noaa.gov/dataviewer
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        abstract:  ASCII xyz and binary point-cloud data, as well as a digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the New Jersey coastline, pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy (October 2012 hurricane), were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Elevation measurements were collected over the area using the second-generation Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL-B), a pulsed laser ranging system mounted onboard an aircraft to measure ground elevation, vegetation canopy, and coastal topography. The system uses high-frequency laser beams directed at the Earth's surface through an opening in the bottom of the aircraft's fuselage. The laser system records the time difference between emission of the laser beam and the reception of the reflected laser signal in the aircraft. The plane travels over the target area at approximately 55 meters per second at an elevation of approximately 300 meters, resulting in a laser swath of approximately 240 meters with an average point spacing of 0.5 - 1.6 meters. The nominal vertical elevation accuracy expressed as the root mean square error (RMSE) is 20 centimeters. A peak sampling rate of 15 - 30 kilohertz results in an extremely dense spatial elevation dataset. Over 100 kilometers of coastline can be surveyed easily within a 3-to-4-hour mission. When resultant elevation maps for an area are analyzed, they provide a useful tool to make management decisions regarding land development. Original contact information: Contact Name: Xan Fredericks Contact Org: Cherokee Nation Technology Solutions, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL Title: Lidar Validation and Processing Analyst Phone: 727 502-8086 Email: afredericks@usgs.gov This data set is an LAZ (compressed LAS) format file containing LIDAR point cloud data.
        purpose:  The purpose of this project was to produce highly detailed and accurate digital elevation maps of a portion of the New Jersey coastline, pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy (October 2012 hurricane), for use as a management tool and to make these data available to natural-resource managers and research scientists.
        credit:  Acknowledgment of the U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, as a data source would be appreciated in products developed from these data, and such acknowledgment as is standard for citation and legal practices for data source is expected. Sharing of new data layers developed directly from these data would also be appreciated by the U.S. Geological Survey staff. Users should be aware that comparisons with other datasets for the same area from other time periods may be inaccurate due to inconsistencies resulting from changes in photointerpretation, mapping conventions, and digital processes over time. These data are not legal documents and are not to be used as such. The custom download may be cited as National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Digital Coast Data Access Viewer. Charleston, SC: NOAA Office for Coastal Management. Accessed Apr 01, 2022 at https://coast.noaa.gov/dataviewer.
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
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            organisationName:  NOAA Office for Coastal Management
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                phone:  (CI_Telephone)
                    voice:  (843) 740-1202
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  2234 South Hobson Ave
                    city:  Charleston
                    administrativeArea:  SC
                    postalCode:  29405-2413
                    country: (missing)
                    electronicMailAddress:  coastal.info@noaa.gov
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                    linkage: https://coast.noaa.gov
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                    description:  NOAA Office for Coastal Management Home Page
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                    deliveryPoint:  2234 South Hobson Ave
                    city:  Charleston
                    administrativeArea:  SC
                    postalCode:  29405-2413
                    country: (missing)
                    electronicMailAddress:  coastal.info@noaa.gov
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                    linkage: https://coast.noaa.gov
                    protocol:  WWW:LINK-1.0-http--link
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                    description:  NOAA Office for Coastal Management Home Page
                    function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
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        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > TOPOGRAPHY > TERRAIN ELEVATION
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
                date: (missing)
                edition:  12.3
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  LIDAR > Light Detection and Ranging
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) instrument
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
                date: (missing)
                edition:  10.3
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  ALPS
            keyword:  Airborne Lidar Processing System
            keyword:  Cessna 310
            keyword:  DEM
            keyword:  Digital Elevation Model
            keyword:  EAARL-B
            keyword:  Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar
            keyword:  laser altimetry
            keyword:  lidar
            keyword:  remote sensing
            keyword:  topography
            keyword:  2012
            keyword:  Post-Hurricane Sandy
            keyword:  Pre-Hurricane Sandy
            keyword:  First Surface
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
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                title:  General
                date: (missing)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  DOI/USGS/CMG > COASTAL AND MARINE GEOLOGY
            keyword:  OCEAN > COASTAL PROCESSES > BARRIER ISLANDS
            keyword:  OCEAN > COASTAL PROCESSES > BEACHES
            keyword:  OCEAN > COASTAL PROCESSES > SHORELINE DISPLACEMENT
            keyword:  U.S. DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR
            keyword:  U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Science Directory
                date: (missing)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Atlantic
            keyword:  Atlantic Ocean
            keyword:  Cape May
            keyword:  Monmouth
            keyword:  New Jersey
            keyword:  Ocean
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
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                date: (missing)
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            keyword:  Lidar - partner (no harvest)
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) project
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                date: (inapplicable)
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            otherConstraints:  Cite As: OCM Partners, [Date of Access]: 2012 USGS EAARL-B Coastal Topography: Post-Sandy, First Surface (NJ) [Data Date Range], https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/49611.
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_Constraints)
            useLimitation:  NOAA provides no warranty, nor accepts any liability occurring from any incomplete, incorrect, or misleading data, or from any incorrect, incomplete, or misleading use of the data. It is the responsibility of the user to determine whether or not the data is suitable for the intended purpose.
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
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            useConstraints:  (MD_RestrictionCode) otherRestrictions
            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: None | Use Constraints: The U.S. Geological Survey requests to be acknowledged as originator of these data in future products or derivative research. | Distribution Liability: Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and a computer system at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. The USGS and NOAA shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data describe and/or contained herein. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply expressed endorsement by the U.S. Government.
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            classification:  (MD_ClassificationCode) unclassified
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            handlingDescription:  None
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                            linkage: https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inportserve/waf/noaa/nos/ocmp/dmp/pdf/49611.pdf
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                            name:  NOAA Data Management Plan (DMP)
                            description:  NOAA Data Management Plan for this record on InPort.
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            associationType:  (DS_AssociationTypeCode) crossReference
        spatialRepresentationType:  (MD_SpatialRepresentationTypeCode) vector
        language:  eng; US
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) elevation
        extent:  (EX_Extent)
            geographicElement:  (EX_GeographicBoundingBox)
                westBoundLongitude:  -74.9999856
                eastBoundLongitude:  -73.93982939
                southBoundLatitude:  38.84877268
                northBoundLatitude:  40.5568922
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimeInstant:
                    description:   | Currentness: Ground Condition
                    timePosition:  2012-10-26
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimeInstant:
                    description:   | Currentness: Ground Condition
                    timePosition:  2012-11-01
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimeInstant:
                    description:   | Currentness: Ground Condition
                    timePosition:  2012-11-05
        supplementalInformation:  Raw lidar data are not in a format that is generally usable by resource managers and scientists for scientific analysis. Converting dense lidar elevation data into a readily usable format without loss of essential information requires specialized processing. The U.S. Geological Survey's Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) has developed custom software to convert raw lidar data into a GIS-compatible map product to be provided to GIS specialists, managers, and scientists. The primary tool used in the conversion process is Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a multi-tiered processing system developed originally by a USGS-NASA collaborative project. Specialized processing algorithms are used to convert raw waveform lidar data acquired by the EAARL-B to georeferenced spot (x,y,z) returns for "first surface" and "bare earth" topography. The terms first surface and bare earth refer to the digital elevation data of the terrain, but while first-surface data include vegetation, buildings, and other man-made structures, bare-earth data do not. The zero crossing of the second derivative (that is, detection of stationary points) is used to detect the first return, resulting in "first surface" topography, while the trailing edge algorithm (that is, the algorithm searches for the location prior to the last return where direction changes along the trailing edge) is used to detect the range to the last return, or "bare earth" (the first and last returns being the first and last significant measurable portion of the return pulse). Statistical filtering, known as the Random Consensus Filter (RCF), is used to remove false bottom returns and other outliers from the EAARL-B topography data. The filter uses a grid of non-overlapping square cells (buffer) of user-defined size overlaid onto the original point cloud. The user also defines the vertical tolerance (vertical width) based on the topographic complexity and point-sampling density of the data. The maximum allowable elevation range within a cell is established by this vertical tolerance. An iterative process searches for the maximum concentration of points within the vertical tolerance and removes those points outside of the tolerance (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). These data are then converted to the North American Datum of 1983 and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (using the GEOID12A model). Each file contains data located in a 10-kilometer by 10-kilometer tile, where the upper-left bound can be ascertained quickly through the filename. The first 3 numbers in the filename represent the left-most UTM easting coordinate (e###000) in meters, the next 4 numbers represent the top-most UTM northing coordinate (n####000) in meters, and the last 2 numbers (##) represent the UTM zone in which the tile is located (for example, fs_e123_n4567_18). The development of custom software for creating these data products has been supported by the U.S. Geological Survey CMGP's Lidar for Science and Resource Management project. Processed data products are used by the U.S. Geological Survey CMGP's National Assessments of Coastal Change Hazards project to quantify the vulnerability of shorelines to coastal change hazards such as severe storms, sea-level rise, and shoreline erosion and retreat. The DEMs created by USGS from the point data were not ingested into the Digital Coast. They are available from the USGS at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/767/. That site is also the authoritative source for the point data.
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        complianceCode:  false
        language:
          LanguageCode:  eng
        includedWithDataset:  false
        featureCatalogueCitation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  see process steps within this record
            date: (unavailable)
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    distributionInfo:  (MD_Distribution)
        distributor:  (MD_Distributor)
            distributorContact:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                organisationName:  NOAA Office for Coastal Management
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                        voice:  (843) 740-1202
                    address:  (CI_Address)
                        deliveryPoint:  2234 South Hobson Ave
                        city:  Charleston
                        administrativeArea:  SC
                        postalCode:  29405-2413
                        country: (missing)
                        electronicMailAddress:  coastal.info@noaa.gov
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                        linkage: https://coast.noaa.gov
                        protocol:  WWW:LINK-1.0-http--link
                        name:  NOAA Office for Coastal Management Website
                        description:  NOAA Office for Coastal Management Home Page
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                linkage: https://noaa-nos-coastal-lidar-pds.s3.amazonaws.com/laz/geoid18/3657/index.html
                protocol:  WWW:LINK-1.0-http--link
                name:  Bulk Download
                description:  Simple download of data files.
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        transferOptions:  (MD_DigitalTransferOptions)
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                linkage: https://coast.noaa.gov/dataviewer/#/lidar/search/where:ID=3657
                protocol:  WWW:LINK-1.0-http--link
                name:  Customized Download
                description:  Create custom data files by choosing data area, product type, map projection, file format, datum, etc.
                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) download
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
        report:  (DQ_QuantitativeAttributeAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Accuracy
            evaluationMethodDescription:  The expected accuracy of the measured variables is as follows: attitude within 0.05 degree, 3 centimeters nominal ranging accuracy, and vertical elevation accuracy of 20 centimeters RMSE for the topographic surface. Quality checks are built into the data-processing software.
            result: (missing)
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Horizontal Positional Accuracy
            evaluationMethodDescription:  Raw elevation measurements have been determined to be within 1 meter in horizontal accuracy.
            result: (missing)
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Vertical Positional Accuracy
            evaluationMethodDescription:  Typical vertical elevation accuracies for these data are consistent with the point elevation data. However, a ground-control survey is not conducted simultaneously with every lidar survey. Vertical accuracies may vary based on the type of terrain and the accuracy of the GPS and aircraft-attitude measurements.
            result: (missing)
        report:  (DQ_CompletenessCommission)
            nameOfMeasure:  Completeness Report
            evaluationMethodDescription:  Several regions of the raster dataset are labeled as "No Data," which corresponds to a cell value of -32767 meters in the GeoTIFF file. These "No Data" areas are a result of the survey not covering a particular region or the manual removal of lidar processing artifacts. The presence of "No Data" values does not necessarily indicate an absence of land, but rather an absence of survey coverage or the presence of prolific vegetation that the laser is not able to penetrate in order to return bare-earth data. This metadata file is generalized; each data file on this DVD has its own corresponding metadata file.
            result: (missing)
        report:  (DQ_ConceptualConsistency)
            nameOfMeasure:  Conceptual Consistency
            evaluationMethodDescription:  Each file contains data located in a 10-kilometer by 10-kilometer tile where the upper-left bound can be ascertained quickly through the filename. The first 3 numbers in the filename represent the left-most UTM easting coordinate (e###000) in meters, the next 4 numbers represent the top-most UTM northing coordinate (n####000) in meters, and the last 2 numbers (##) represent the UTM zone in which the tile is located (for example, fs_e123_n4567_18).
            result: (missing)
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            statement: (missing)
            processStep:  (LI_ProcessStep)
                description:  The data were collected using a Cessna 310 aircraft. The EAARL-B laser scanner collects the data using a green-wavelength (532-nanometer) raster scanning laser, while a digital camera acquires a visual record of the flight. The data are stored on hard drives and archived at the U.S. Geological Survey office in St. Petersburg, Florida. The navigational data are processed and then, along with the raw data, are downloaded into ALPS, or the Airborne Lidar Processing System (20130522 - 20131024). Data are converted from units of time to x,y,z points for elevation and formatted into .las and .xyz files, and the derived surface data is converted into raster data (GeoTIFFs).
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2013-10-24T00:00:00
            processStep:  (LI_ProcessStep)
                description:  Metadata imported into ArcCatalog 9.3.1.3000 from XML file.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2013-11-14T00:00:00
            processStep:  (LI_ProcessStep)
                description:  Point data in LAS format were downloaded from USGS site http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/767/ on June 3, 2014. Data were then ingested into the Digital Coast system after reprojecting from UTM zone 18 to geographic coordinates and reversing the application of GEOID12a to arrive at ellipsoid heights. Data were compressed using laszip (www.laszip.org). Pre and post Sandy data were separated into two datasets.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2014-06-04T00:00:00
            source:  (LI_Source)
                description:  Source Contribution: Point data in LAS format | Type of Source Media: online
                sourceCitation:  (CI_Citation)
                    title:  EAARL-B Coastal Topography--Eastern New Jersey, Hurricane Sandy, 2012: First Surface
                    date:  (CI_Date)
                        date:  2014-06-03
                        dateType:  (CI_DateTypeCode) publication
                    citedResponsibleParty:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                        organisationName: (inapplicable)
                        contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                            onlineResource:  (CI_OnlineResource)
                                linkage: http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/767/
                                protocol:  WWW:LINK-1.0-http--link
                                name:  Source Citation URL
                                description:  Source Citation URL
                                function:  (CI_OnLineFunctionCode) information
                        role: (inapplicable)
                sourceExtent:  (EX_Extent)
                    temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                        extent:
                          TimeInstant:
                            timePosition:  2012-10-26
            processStep:  (LI_ProcessStep)
                description:   The vertical values in this data set have been converted to reference North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) (GEOID18) meters, using the GEOID18 grids provided by the National Geodetic Survey. Any datum and projection transformations were then done with the Office for Coastal Management 'datum_shift' program. Compression to an LAZ file was done with the LAStools 'laszip' program and can be unzipped with the same free program (laszip.org) Processing notes:
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2022-04-01T06:09:14
                processor:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  NOAA Office for Coastal Management
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            electronicMailAddress:  coastal.info@noaa.gov
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor