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2012-2013 Post-Hurricane Sandy EAARL-B Submerged Topography - Barnegat Bay, New Jersey
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        citation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  2012-2013 Post-Hurricane Sandy EAARL-B Submerged Topography - Barnegat Bay, New Jersey
            alternateTitle:  nj2012_usgs_barnegatbay_m4730_metadata
            date:  (CI_Date)
                date:  2014
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                  Anchor:  InPort Catalog ID 49861
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        abstract:  Binary point-cloud data for part of Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, post-Hurricane Sandy (October 2012 hurricane), were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey. Elevation measurements were collected over the area using the second-generation Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar, a pulsed laser ranging system mounted onboard an aircraft to measure ground elevation, vegetation canopy, and coastal topography. The system uses high-frequency laser beams directed at the Earth's surface through an opening in the bottom of the aircraft's fuselage. The laser system records the time difference between emission of the laser beam and the reception of the reflected laser signal in the aircraft. The plane travels over the target area at approximately 55 meters per second at an elevation of approximately 300 meters, resulting in a laser swath of approximately 240 meters with an average point spacing of 0.5-1.6 meters. The nominal vertical elevation accuracy expressed as the root mean square error (RMSE) is 25 centimeters. A peak sampling rate of 15-30 kilohertz results in an extremely dense spatial elevation dataset. More than 100 kilometers of coastline can be surveyed easily within a 3- to 4-hour mission. When resultant elevation maps for an area are analyzed, they provide a useful tool to make management decisions regarding land development. This data set is an LAZ (compressed LAS) format file containing LIDAR point cloud data.
        purpose:  The purpose of this project was to produce highly detailed and accurate digital elevation maps for part of Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, post-Hurricane Sandy (October 2012 hurricane), for use as a management tool and to make these data available to natural-resource managers and research scientists.
        status:  (MD_ProgressCode) completed
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            organisationName:  NOAA Office for Coastal Management
            contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
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                    voice:  (843) 740-1202
                address:  (CI_Address)
                    deliveryPoint:  2234 South Hobson Ave
                    city:  Charleston
                    administrativeArea:  SC
                    postalCode:  29405-2413
                    country: (missing)
                    electronicMailAddress:  coastal.info@noaa.gov
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                    linkage: https://coast.noaa.gov
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                    description:  NOAA Office for Coastal Management Home Page
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                    deliveryPoint:  2234 South Hobson Ave
                    city:  Charleston
                    administrativeArea:  SC
                    postalCode:  29405-2413
                    country: (missing)
                    electronicMailAddress:  coastal.info@noaa.gov
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                    linkage: https://coast.noaa.gov
                    protocol:  WWW:LINK-1.0-http--link
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                    description:  NOAA Office for Coastal Management Home Page
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            role:  (CI_RoleCode) custodian
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        graphicOverview:  (MD_BrowseGraphic)
            fileName: https://noaa-nos-coastal-lidar-pds.s3.amazonaws.com/laz/geoid18/4730/supplemental/nj2012_usgs_barnegatbay_m4730.kmz
            fileDescription:  This graphic shows the coverage of the 2012 USGS Post Sandy Topobathy lidar collection of Barnegat Bay, NJ.
            fileType:  kmz
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > TOPOGRAPHY > TERRAIN ELEVATION
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
                date: (missing)
                edition:  12.3
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  LIDAR > Light Detection and Ranging
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) instrument
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
                date: (missing)
                edition:  10.3
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  ALPS
            keyword:  Airborne Lidar Processing System
            keyword:  Cessna 310
            keyword:  DEM
            keyword:  Digital Elevation Model
            keyword:  EAARL-B
            keyword:  Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar
            keyword:  bathymetry
            keyword:  laser altimetry
            keyword:  lidar
            keyword:  remote sensing
            keyword:  topography
            keyword:  2012
            keyword:  2013
            keyword:  Post-Hurricane Sandy
            keyword:  Submerged
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
            thesaurusName:  (CI_Citation)
                title:  General
                date: (missing)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  DOI/USGS/CMG > COASTAL AND MARINE GEOLOGY
            keyword:  OCEAN > COASTAL PROCESSES > BARRIER ISLANDS
            keyword:  OCEAN > COASTAL PROCESSES > BEACHES
            keyword:  OCEAN > COASTAL PROCESSES > SHORELINE DISPLACEMENT
            keyword:  U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
            keyword:  U.S.DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) theme
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                title:  Global Change Master Science Directory
                date: (missing)
        descriptiveKeywords:  (MD_Keywords)
            keyword:  Atlantic Ocean
            keyword:  Barnegat Bay
            keyword:  New Jersey
            keyword:  Ocean
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) place
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                title:  Geographic Names Information System
                date: (missing)
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            keyword:  Lidar - partner (no harvest)
            type:  (MD_KeywordTypeCode) project
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            otherConstraints:  Cite As: OCM Partners, [Date of Access]: 2012-2013 Post-Hurricane Sandy EAARL-B Submerged Topography - Barnegat Bay, New Jersey [Data Date Range], https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/49861.
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_Constraints)
            useLimitation:  NOAA provides no warranty, nor accepts any liability occurring from any incomplete, incorrect, or misleading data, or from any incorrect, incomplete, or misleading use of the data. It is the responsibility of the user to determine whether or not the data is suitable for the intended purpose.
        resourceConstraints:  (MD_LegalConstraints)
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            otherConstraints:  Access Constraints: None | Use Constraints: The U.S. Geological Survey requests to be acknowledged as originators of these data in future products or derivative research. | Distribution Liability: Any conclusions drawn from the analysis of this information are not the responsibility of USGS, NOAA, the Office for Coastal Management or its partners.
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                            linkage: https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inportserve/waf/noaa/nos/ocmp/dmp/pdf/49861.pdf
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        spatialRepresentationType:  (MD_SpatialRepresentationTypeCode) vector
        language:  eng; US
        topicCategory:  (MD_TopicCategoryCode) elevation
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                westBoundLongitude:  -74.4186321
                eastBoundLongitude:  -73.94403664
                southBoundLatitude:  39.47675859
                northBoundLatitude:  40.10738038
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
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                    description:   | Currentness: Ground Condition
                    timePosition:  2012-11-01
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
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                    description:   | Currentness: Ground Condition
                    timePosition:  2012-11-05
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
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                    description:   | Currentness: Ground Condition
                    timePosition:  2012-11-16
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimeInstant:
                    description:   | Currentness: Ground Condition
                    timePosition:  2012-11-20
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimeInstant:
                    description:   | Currentness: Ground Condition
                    timePosition:  2012-11-30
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
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                    description:   | Currentness: Ground Condition
                    timePosition:  2012-12-05
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimeInstant:
                    description:   | Currentness: Ground Condition
                    timePosition:  2012-12-06
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimeInstant:
                    description:   | Currentness: Ground Condition
                    timePosition:  2012-12-21
            temporalElement:  (EX_TemporalExtent)
                extent:
                  TimeInstant:
                    description:   | Currentness: Ground Condition
                    timePosition:  2013-01-10
        supplementalInformation:  Raw lidar data are not in a format that is generally usable by natural-resource managers and research scientists for scientific analysis. Converting dense lidar elevation data into a readily usable format without loss of essential information requires specialized processing. The U.S. Geological Survey's Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) has developed custom software to convert raw lidar data into a GIS-compatible map product to be provided to GIS specialists, managers, and scientists. The primary tool used in the conversion process is Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a multitiered processing system developed originally by a USGS-NASA collaborative project. Specialized processing algorithms are used to convert raw waveform lidar data acquired by the EAARL-B to georeferenced spot (x,y,z) returns for "first surface" and "bare earth" topography. The terms first surface and bare earth refer to the digital elevation data of the terrain, but although first-surface data include vegetation, buildings, and other manmade structures, bare-earth data do not. The zero crossing of the second derivative (that is, detection of stationary points) is used to detect the first return, resulting in "first surface" topography, whereas the trailing edge algorithm (that is, the algorithm searches for the location before the last return where direction changes along the trailing edge) is used to detect the range to the last return, or "bare earth" (the first and last returns being the first and last significant measurable part of the return pulse). Statistical filtering, known as the Random Consensus Filter (RCF), is used to remove false bottom returns and other outliers from the EAARL-B topography data. The filter uses a grid of non-overlapping square cells (buffer) of user-defined size overlaid onto the original point cloud. The user also defines the vertical tolerance (vertical width) based on the topographic complexity and point-sampling density of the data. The maximum allowable elevation range within a cell is established by this vertical tolerance. An iterative process searches for the maximum concentration of points within the vertical tolerance and removes those points outside of the tolerance (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). These data are then converted to the North American Datum of 1983 and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (using the GEOID12A model). Each file contains data located in a 2-kilometer by 2-kilometer tile, where the upper-left bound can be ascertained quickly through the filename. The first 3 numbers in the filename represent the left-most UTM east bounding coordinate (e###000) in meters, the next 4 numbers represent the top-most UTM north bounding coordinate (n####000) in meters, and the last 2 numbers (##) represent the UTM zone in which the tile is located (for example, post_e123_n4567_18). The development of custom software for creating these data products has been supported by the U.S. Geological Survey CMGP's Lidar for Science and Resource Management project. Processed data products are used by the U.S. Geological Survey CMGP's National Assessments of Coastal Change Hazards project to quantify the vulnerability of shorelines to coastal change hazards such as severe storms, sea-level rise, and shoreline erosion and retreat.
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          LanguageCode:  eng
        includedWithDataset:  false
        featureCatalogueCitation:  (CI_Citation)
            title:  none
            date: (unavailable)
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                organisationName:  NOAA Office for Coastal Management
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                        voice:  (843) 740-1202
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                        deliveryPoint:  2234 South Hobson Ave
                        city:  Charleston
                        administrativeArea:  SC
                        postalCode:  29405-2413
                        country: (missing)
                        electronicMailAddress:  coastal.info@noaa.gov
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    dataQualityInfo:  (DQ_DataQuality)
        scope:  (DQ_Scope)
            level:  (MD_ScopeCode) dataset
        report:  (DQ_QuantitativeAttributeAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Accuracy
            evaluationMethodDescription:  The expected accuracy of the measured variables is as follows: attitude within 0.05 degree, 3 centimeters nominal ranging accuracy, and vertical elevation accuracy of 25 centimeters RMSE for the topographic surface. Quality checks are built into the data-processing software.
            result: (missing)
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Horizontal Positional Accuracy
            evaluationMethodDescription:  Expected horizontal accuracy for the Leica ALS70-cm sensor, as determined from system studies and other methods, is 1/5500th of the flight height, which, in the instance of this particular project was 3,800-feet AGL (1250m), giving a horizontal tolerance of less than 0.691 US survey feet (0.211 m).; Quantitative Value: 100 meters, Test that produced the value: 1.0 m
            result: (missing)
        report:  (DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy)
            nameOfMeasure:  Vertical Positional Accuracy
            evaluationMethodDescription:  The nominal vertical elevation accuracy expressed as the root mean square error (RMSE) is 25 centimeters.; Quantitative Value: 0.25 meters, Test that produced the value: 25 cm RMSEz
            result: (missing)
        report:  (DQ_CompletenessCommission)
            nameOfMeasure:  Completeness Report
            evaluationMethodDescription:  These point-cloud data may appear sparse or nonexistent, which is a result of removal from manual editing or lack of survey coverage.
            result: (missing)
        report:  (DQ_ConceptualConsistency)
            nameOfMeasure:  Conceptual Consistency
            evaluationMethodDescription:  Each file contains data located in a 2-kilometer by 2-kilometer tile where the upper-left bound can be ascertained quickly through the filename. The first 3 numbers in the filename represent the left-most UTM east bounding coordinate (e###000) in meters, the next 4 numbers represent the top-most UTM north bounding coordinate (n####000) in meters, and the last 2 numbers (##) represent the UTM zone in which the tile is located (for example, post_e123_n4567_18).
            result: (missing)
        lineage:  (LI_Lineage)
            statement: (missing)
            processStep:  (LI_ProcessStep)
                description:  The data were collected using a Cessna 310 aircraft. The EAARL-B laser scanner collects the data using a green-wavelength (532-nanometer) raster scanning laser, while a digital camera acquires a visual record of the flight. The data are stored on hard drives and archived at the U.S. Geological Survey office in St. Petersburg, Florida. The navigational data are processed and then, along with the raw data, are downloaded into ALPS, or the Airborne Lidar Processing System (20130211-20140219). Data are converted from units of time to x,y,z points for elevation and formatted into .las and .xyz files, and the derived surface data are converted into raster data (GeoTIFFs).
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2014-02-19T00:00:00
            processStep:  (LI_ProcessStep)
                description:  A bias correction of -16 centimeters (value determined from instrument calibrations) was applied to the point-cloud data using ALPS (20140827) to account for a change in configuration parameters. Data are formatted into .las and .xyz files, and the derived surface data are converted into raster data (GeoTIFFs).
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2014-08-27T00:00:00
            processStep:  (LI_ProcessStep)
                description:  The lidar data were downloaded as LAS files from the USGS Data Series' website for the survey. The data obtained were projected in NAD83 UTM coordinates (Zone 18), and referenced vertically to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) using the NGS Geoid12A model. The vertical units of the data were meters. For preparation of the data for Digital Coast provisioning and data storage, the following processing steps were performed: Using NOAA VDatum software the data were 1) reprojected from NAD83 UTM Zone 18 to NAD83 geographic coordinates and 2) the data were transformed from orthometric to ellipsoidal (GRS80) heights using Geoid12A. Bathymetric ("submerged topography") points were reclassfied from 0 to 11 for consistency with NOAA OCM's classification scheme for bathymetric lidar. 3) data were then converted to .laz format using LASzip.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2014-03-06T00:00:00
            processStep:  (LI_ProcessStep)
                description:  The NOAA Office for Coastal Management (OCM) reviewed the bathymetric lidar files for quality assurance.
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2014-12-19T00:00:00
            processStep:  (LI_ProcessStep)
                description:   The vertical values in this data set have been converted to reference North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) (GEOID18) meters, using the GEOID18 grids provided by the National Geodetic Survey. Any datum and projection transformations were then done with the Office for Coastal Management 'datum_shift' program. Compression to an LAZ file was done with the LAStools 'laszip' program and can be unzipped with the same free program (laszip.org) Processing notes:
                dateTime:
                  DateTime:  2022-04-01T06:17:32
                processor:  (CI_ResponsibleParty)
                    individualName:  NOAA Office for Coastal Management
                    contactInfo:  (CI_Contact)
                        address:  (CI_Address)
                            electronicMailAddress:  coastal.info@noaa.gov
                    role:  (CI_RoleCode) processor